|Election||Premier at election||Premier's party||Premier after election||Premier's party|
|VIC 22 February 1883||Bryan O'Loghlen||Support from parliamentary factions and independents||James Service||Ministerialists (Conservative)|
|VIC 14 July 1880||James Service||Support from parliamentary factions and independents||Graham Berry||Support from parliamentary factions and independents|
|VIC 28 February 1880||Graham Berry||Support from parliamentary factions and independents||James Service||Support from parliamentary factions and independents|
Loss of general election (Berry): Beginning of Service's first period in office; 'Upon the defeat of his second [constitutional] reform Bill in December 1879, Berry obtained a dissolution of the Assembly. The election campaign confirmed the fracturing of 1877 alliance. The NRPL [National Reform and Protection League] was in decline and challenged by a rival Liberal organization. Predictably, the squattocracy and allies were galvanized like never before -- an anti-Berry Registration Society formed to enrol voters for the purpose of liberating Victoria from his incubus. The most decisive factors working against Berry, though, were the depressed economy and widespread exhaustion after four years of unrelieved political tumult. In February 1880, his majority was wiped out,' Strangio, p.66 (see 'References', below).
'The election [of 28 February 1880] had produced an Assembly divided between Service's Constitutionalists, Berryite Liberals and a small, but significant, Roman Catholic grouping. With the latter's support, Service formed a ministry.' Strangio, p.66 (see 'References', below). Serviced was commissioned on 5 March 1880.
Loss of general election (Service): Service introduced his own constitutional reform bill to limit the powers of the Legislative Council. 'When that Bill was narrowly defeated in the Assembly, the governor granted Service a dissolution. The second election in less than five months [held on 14 July 1880] brought Berry perilously close to a majority. Following negotiations with the Catholic leaders, Sir Bryan O'Loughlin and John O'Shanassy, he resumed the premier's office in August 1880.' Strangio, p.66 (see 'References', below).
References: For a study of the Victorian parliament in this period, see Wright, ch. 5 (see 'Sources', below), and note the 'Prologue' in Geoffrey Serle, The Rush to be Rich: A History of the Colony of Victoria, 1883-1889, pp 1-13 (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1971). Note also, Alfred Deakin, The Crisis in Victorian Politics, 1879-1881: A Personal Retrospect, edited by J A La Nauze and R M Crawford, (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1957). Service's periods in office are surveyed in John Lack, 'Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde? Service and Gillies: The Grand Coalition Premiers 1883-1890', in Strangio and Costar (editors), ch. 5 (see 'Sources', below), and note Paul Strangio, 'Broken Heads and Flaming Houses: Graham Berry, the Wild Colonial', in Strangio and Costar (editors), ch. 4 (see 'Sources', below). For a survey of Service's career, see Geoffrey Serle, 'Service, James (1823–1899)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 6, (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1976), on line here [accessed 4 March 2014].
Parliament of Victoria, One Hundred Years of Responsible Government 1856-1956, (Melbourne: Government Printer, 1957, Parliamentary Paper No. 40 of 1956-58); Paul Strangio and Brian Costar (editors), The Victorian Premiers 1856-2006, (Sydney: Federation Press, 2006, ISBN 9781862876019); Raymond Wright, A People's Counsel: A History of the Parliament of Victoria 1856-1990, (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1992, ISBN 0195533593). In consulting these sources, note the difference between ministries and periods in office.