|Election||Premier at election||Premier's party||Premier after election||Premier's party|
|VIC 14 July 1880||James Service||Support from parliamentary factions and independents||Graham Berry||Support from parliamentary factions and independents|
|VIC 28 February 1880||Graham Berry||Support from parliamentary factions and independents||James Service||Support from parliamentary factions and independents|
|VIC 11 May 1877||James McCulloch||Support from parliamentary factions and independents||Graham Berry||Support from parliamentary factions and independents|
Resignation of premier (Kerferd): Beginning of Berry's first period in office; After a year in office, '[t]he government's majority shrank on [Treasurer] Service's proposals for an assortment of new taxes and tax increases. McCulloch launched a particularly damaging attack, and many protectionists deserted as some tariffs were to be reduced. His majority down to one vote, Kerferd asked for a dissolution, and resigned when the acting governor, Sir William Stawell, refused. Stawell doubted that an election would change the numbers in the Assembly, and also thought that the country needed to experience "the evils of Protection" (in the shape of the new Berry government) before people would see its fallacies [note omitted].' Waugh, p. 44 (see 'References', below). The vote on the budget was taken on 29 July 1875, and Kerferd tendered his resignation to the acting governor on 3 August; see Victoria Parliamentary Debates, 1875-6 Session, vol. 21, 29 July and 3 August 1875, pp 923-927. Berry was commissioned to form a government on 7 August 1875.
Defeat in parliament (Berry): '... [T]he decisive issue for the new ministry was a proposed land tax on large estates designed, Berry explained, to fall upon "a class that has enjoyed exceptional advantages in the past, and has not contributed to the State anything like its fair proportion of public taxation" [note omitted]. When a faction aligned behind McCulloch voted against the land tax and other budget measures in October, Berry requested the acting governor, Sir William Stawell, dissolve parliament. Stawell refused; instead he invited McCulloch to form a ministry, its intention [being] to substitute a general tax and tariff cuts for the Berry land tax.' Strangio, p.56 (see 'References', below).
The vote on the budget was taken in the early hours of 7 October 1875, and Berry tendered his resignation on 12 October after an exchange of correspondence with the acting governor; see Victoria Parliamentary Debates, 1875-6 Session, vol. 22, 6 October 1875, pp 1258-1259; 12 October, pp 1259-1261; and 13 October 1875, p.1272.
References: For a study of the Victorian parliament in this period, see, Wright, ch. 5 (see 'Sources', below), and note the 'Prologue' in Geoffrey Serle, The Rush to be Rich: A History of the Colony of Victoria, 1883-1889, pp 1-13 (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1971). Note John Waugh, ' ''The Inevitable McCulloch" and his Rivals, 1863-1877', in Strangio and Costar (editors), ch. 3 (see 'Sources', below), and see Paul Strangio, 'Broken Heads and Flaming Houses: Graham Berry, the Wild Colonial', in Strangio and Costar (editors), ch. 4 (see 'Sources', below). For a survey of Berry's career, see Geoffrey Bartlett, 'Berry, Sir Graham (1822–1904)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 3, (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1969), on line here [accessed 3 March 2014].
Parliament of Victoria, One Hundred Years of Responsible Government 1856-1956, (Melbourne: Government Printer, 1957, Parliamentary Paper No. 40 of 1956-58); Paul Strangio and Brian Costar (editors), The Victorian Premiers 1856-2006, (Sydney: Federation Press, 2006, ISBN 9781862876019); Raymond Wright, A People's Counsel: A History of the Parliament of Victoria 1856-1990, (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1992, ISBN 0195533593). In consulting these sources, note the difference between ministries and periods in office.