ID 0486

Parliament of Victoria, Legislative Assembly election

Election of 18 September 1999

Show only vote and seat summary details

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General election for the Legislative Assembly
Date of election (or first day of voting at elections held over more than one day)
18 September 1999

Government in office and parliamentary support before and after the election

Government in office at election

Premier in office at date of election. (check notes to see if change of Premier since previous election)
Premier's party affiliation
Liberal Party
Legislative Assembly support for government at election
If coalition, coalition partner(s)
National Party

Government in office after election

Premier's party affiliation
Australian Labor Party
Legislative Assembly support for government after election
If coalition, coalition partner(s)

Enrolment and voting

Total number of voters on the roll
Number of Assembly seats
Number of uncontested seats
If uncontested seats, number of voters on the roll in uncontested seats
Number of voters on the roll in contested seats
Total ballots cast (may differ from number of votes in multiple voting systems)
Turnout (rate of voting in contested seats)
Total valid votes
Rate of informal (invalid) voting
Informal (invalid) ballots in multiple voting system
Not applicable
Electoral system
Adult franchise at 18 years, single member districts, preferential voting (AV), compulsory preferences, compulsory voting

Victoria, Legislative Assembly votes and seats won

Display Chart

Election held on 18 September 1999
Criteria for the inclusion of parties in this table are set out in the Glossary under 'listed party'

* to view table drag left or right.
Party Name First preference vote n First preference vote share % Change from previous election % Seats won n Uncontested seats held n Seat share %
Australian Labor Party  1,289,696  45.57  +2.43  42  47.73 
Liberal Party  1,194,998  42.22  -1.76  36  40.91 
National Party  135,930  4.80  -1.89  7.95 
Independents  133,701  4.72  +1.33  3.41 
Australian Greens  32,570  1.15     
Hope Party  10,894  0.38     
Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party  8,181  0.29     
Australian Democrats  7,972  0.28     
Democratic Labor Party  6,183  0.22     
Natural Law Party  6,044  0.21  -1.64     
Shooters Party  2,011  0.07  +0.04     
Australian Reform Party  1,483  0.05     
Christian Democratic Party  414  0.01     
Abolish Child Support and Family Court  194  0.01     
Votes for other than listed parties 0 0.00 0.00       
Totals 2,830,271  100.00    88  100.00 

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* Party did not contest previous election or did not meet criteria for listing, or contested previous election under a different party name.


Election results and supplementary election: 'Following the death on polling day of Independent MP and candidate [Frederick] Peter McClellan [elected in 1992 as a Liberal candidate], the poll for Frankston East was suspended, the returning officer declaring the election to have failed. With the finely balanced result on election night, the result in Frankston East became critical for the outcome of election. Held on 16 October, the results of the supplementary election have been included in all totals as part of the state election result.' Green, p.1, in 'Sources', below. The supplementary election was won by the Australian Labor Party candidate from a field of 16 candidates.

Government in office after election: In a result that was a surprise to many commentators, the Kennett Liberal Party and National Party coalition government lost 15 seats (Liberals 13, National Party 2) and, with 43 seats in the Assembly after the election, the coalition was two short of a working majority. The Australian Labor Party, after the Frankston East supplementary election (see above), gained 13 seats for a total of 42. Three Independent members had been elected and, after negotiations and the completion of the supplementary election on 16 October, the Independents agreed to support an Australian Labor Party minority government led by the Labor leader Bracks. The Independents required the government to accept a Charter of Good Government as a condition of the Independents' support in the Assembly; see Economou, pp 233-234; Woodward and Costar, pp 131-132, both in 'References', below.

Bracks was commissioned as Premier of an Australian Labor Party minority government on 21 October 1999.

Independents: The votes assigned to Independents in the table above includes the votes for all those candidates who registered as Independents or left their party affiliation blank. Sixty-eight Independent candidates contested this Assembly election in 1999, with three winning seats: Russell Savage was returned to the seat of Mildura he had won at the Assembly general election in 1996; Susan Davies was returned to the seat of Gippsland West she had won at a by-election in 1997 (she had been the unsuccessful Labor candidate for the seat at the 1996 general election but ran as an Independent when the Australian Labor Party chose not to contest the by-election); and Craig Ingram who won the seat of Gippsland East from the National Party at this election in 1999.

The three Independents elected at this Assembly election played a critical role in the formation of government both because their support was necessary for majority support in the Assembly and because, working as a group, they were committed to a series of reforms to the working of parliament and government set out in their Charter of Good Government. In addition to the publications listed in 'References', below, the role of the Independents in the formation of government after this election is discussed in Brian Costar and Jennifer Curtin, Rebels with a Cause: Independents in Australian Politics, pp 37-42, (Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2004, ISBN 0868406953).

Australian Greens: While there had been candidates at the previous Assembly election in 1996 who were committed to the formation of a Green party, this Assembly election in 1999 was the first election contested by the Australian Greens as a registered party. It fielded 6 candidates and gained a little over 1 percent of the first preference vote. For a study of the emergence of Green parties in Australia, see Narelle Miragliotta, 'From Local to National: Explaining the Formation of the Australian Green Party', Party Poltics, 18 (3) May 2012: 409-425.

Hope Party: The Hope Party was formed in 1997 by Tim Petheridge and registered in Victoria in 1999. It advocated a commitment to 'Individual ethics, social equality and global ecology'. The Party endorsed 10 candidates at this Assembly election in 1999. [information retrieved from Pandora: Australia's Web Archive here, accessed 26 April 2018].

Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party: Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party made a dramatic entry to Queensland politics at the Queensland Legislative Assembly election of 1998. At this Victorian Assembly election in 1999, it fielded 4 candidates, none of whom was elected. The party subsequently ran candidates in elections across Australia but experienced a series of major organizational changes and has been reconstituted several times (see the 'Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party' entry under party name).

Australian Democrats: Six candidates were endorsed by Australian Democrats for this Assembly election in 1999.

Democratic Labor Party: The Democratic Labor Party had not contested Assembly seats since 1988. At the election in 1999, the Party endorsed 8 candidates.

Natural Law Party: Formed in 1992, this party was committed to using transcendental meditation to '... bring national life in harmony with Natural law so that every Australian will enjoy peace, happiness and prosperity ...', Dean Jaensch and David Mathieson, A Plague on Both Your Houses: Minor Parties in Australia, pp 71-72 (St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 1998, ISBN 1864484217). Fifteen Natural Law candidates contested this Assembly election in 1999.

Shooters Party: The Shooters Party first fielded candidates in 1993 at the federal Senate election in New South Wales to protest the limitations on access to guns that had followed from an agreement between state and federal governments. It subsequently contested elections in all states. At this election in 1999 the party fielded 2 candidates for the Assembly.

Australian Reform Party: The Australian Reform Party was formed in 1996 '... by Ted Drane, President of the Sporting Shooters Association [of Victoria]. Pro-gun; anti-immigration ...', Dean Jaensch and David Mathieson, A Plague on Both Your Houses: Minor Parties in Australia, p.35 (St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 1998, ISBN 1864484217). The party fielded 3 candidates at this Assembly election in 1999.

Christian Democratic Party: This party was a successor to the Call to Australia party which was associated with the New South Wales based Reverend Fred Nile, and was formed in 1980 (for more information, see the notes to the 1988 Assembly election). The party fielded only one candidate at this Assembly election in 1999.

References: For background and analysis of this election, see Nick Economou, 'Victoria', Political Chronicle, June to December 1999, Australian Journal of History and Politics, 46 (2) June 2000: 226-237; Dennis Woodward and Brian Costar, 'The Victorian Election of 18 September 1999: Another Case of Electoral Volatility?', Australian Journal of Political Science, 35 (1) 2000: 125-133. More information on the context of the election can be found in the notes and references to the periods in office of premiers Kennett and Bracks.


For this Assembly election (1999), there is agreement between the three sources below (Hughes 2002, Green 2001 and Carr) on the totals of first preference votes for the established parties but only Green and the Victorian Electoral Commission give a complete list of votes for all the smaller parties.

Colin A Hughes, A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics 1985-1999, (Sydney: Federation Press, 2002, ISBN 1862874344).

Antony Green, 1999 Victorian State Election 18 September 1999: Summary of Results, Sydney, ABC Election Unit, June 2001, online here [accessed 25 April 2018]

Victorian Election Commission, Report to Parliament on the Administration of the 1999 Victorian State Election, 2 volumes, (Melbourne: 2000, ISBN 0731184165), online here, and 'Summary Results', online here [accessed 29 April 2018]

Adam Carr, 'Fifty-fourth Parliament Elected 18 September 1999', in 'Legislative Assembly Elections', Victorian Elections Since 1843, Psephos: Adam Carr's Election Archive, online here [accessed 25 April 2018].