ID 1228

Parliament of Tasmania Legislative Council annual periodic election and by-elections

Election of 23 May 1992


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Election for the Legislative Council
Tasmania
Date of election
1992
Type of Legislative Council election
Periodic elections and by-election, April and May 1992
Previous Assembly election

Government support in Legislative Council at and after election

Government majority in Legislative Council at date of periodic election
No
Government majority in new Legislative Council
No

Composition of the Legislative Council and seats to be filled at this election

Total number of seats in the Legislative Council
19
If the Legislative Council has staggered terms, the number of seats to be filled at this election
3
Casual vacancies (by-elections) and additional seats to be filled at this election (see notes)
1
Total seats to be filled at this election
4

Enrolment and voting

Total number of voters on the roll
63,146
Number of uncontested seats
1
If uncontested seats, number of voters on the roll in uncontested seats
13,003
Number of voters on the roll in contested seats
50,143
Total number of candidates
24
Total ballots cast (may differ from number of votes in multiple voting systems)
40,759
Turnout (rate of voting in contested seats)
81.29%
Total valid votes
39,409
Rate of informal (invalid) voting
3.31%
Informal (invalid) ballots in multiple voting system
Not applicable
Electoral system
Adult franchise (from 1968) at 18 years (from 1973); single member electoral districts; preferential voting (the alternative vote) with optional preferences after the third preference, and rotation of candidates' names on the ballot; staggered fixed six year terms; annual periodic elections; compulsory voting (see notes)


Tasmania, Legislative Council votes and seats won, and seats held

Display Chart

Elections held in 1992
Criteria for the inclusion of parties in this table are set out in the Glossary under 'listed party'

* to view table drag left or right.
Party Name Candidates n First preference vote n First preference vote share % Change from previous election % Seats won by party n Seats won by party % Seats held by party n Seats held by party %
Independents  22  34,483  87.50  +12.59  75.00  17  89.47 
Australian Labor Party  3,161  8.02  -17.07  25.00  10.53 
Tasmanian Greens  1,765  4.48       
Totals 24  39,409  100.00    100.00  19  100.00 


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* Party did not contest previous election or did not meet criteria for listing, or contested previous election under a different party name.

Notes

History of the Legislative Council: For information and references on the early history of the Legislative Council, see the note for the 1856 Legislative Council election.

Franchise: The Constitution Act of 1968 '...abolished all property restrictions on Council electors, making the franchise the same as for the Assembly', Scott Bennett and Barbara Bennett, Tasmanian Electoral Handbook, 1851-1982, p. 17 (Kensington, NSW: Reference Section of History Project Incorporated, University of New South Wales, 1983). The franchise was further widened from 1973 when the minimum age for voting and standing as a candidate for the Legislative Council was reduced to 18 years. The restrictive property qualification for the Legislative Council had been progressively relaxed since 1856 (see notes to previous elections) so that, by 1954 there was a long list of eligible voters which ensured that most Tasmanians could vote at Legislative Council Elections; see section 28 of the Constitution Act 1934, as amended to 1959, in the consolidated Tasmanian Statutes 1826-1959, (Hobart, Government Printer, 1959). For the slow enfranchisement of women for the Legislative Council, see the notes to Legislative Council elections before 1968. Women gained the vote for the Tasmanian House of Assembly in 1903.

Qualifications for candidates: The Constitution Act of 1921 gave women the right to sit as members of the Tasmanian Parliament but the restrictions on women's franchise limited the number of eligible women candidates until 1954; the remaining restrictions for both men and women were removed with the introduction of universal franchise for the Legislative Council in 1968. Under the Constitution Act of 1946, candidates for Legislative Council elections had to be British subjects of at least 25 years of age (previously 30 years, and from 1973, 18 years) and have been resident in the state for five years at any one time or two years preceding the election.

Membership of the Legislative Council: With the passage of the Constitution Act of 1946, a major redistribution of seats for the Legislative Council was undertaken and its membership increased to 19 with effect from 1947. The three member electoral district of Hobart was reconstituted as three single member districts (Hobart, Newdegate, and Queenborough), and the two member electoral district of Launceston was reconstituted as two single member districts (Launceston and Cornwall). Elections for the new districts were to be phased in to match a new sequence of annual periodic elections; three periodic elections for the Legislative Council in May each year, and four every sixth year from 1953.

Members' terms: The Constitution Amendment Act, 1885 had made significant changes to the electoral system (see the notes for the 1886 Legislative Council election). These changes to the terms of members, coupled with a fixed six year term for each member, created a predictable pattern of rotation for periodic elections for the Legislative Council, with periodic elections for the year all held on the same date; for details of the previous electoral arrangements, see the notes to Legislative Council elections before 1885.

Electoral system and voting: The Electoral Act of 1907 introduced preferential voting with semi-optional preferences for Legislative Council elections -- voters were required to express preferences for all candidates on the ballot paper but, if there were more than three candidates for an electoral district, preferences beyond the third were not mandatory. The electoral system was first used for Legislative Council elections in 1909. This change was introduced in the same year as proportional representation by STV was first used for the House of Assembly. The Electoral Act of 1928 made voting compulsory for both houses of the Tasmanian Parliament. The Electoral Act Amendment Act of 1979 provided for the rotation of candidates' names on ballot papers, often called Robson rotation; see Andrew Hawkey, A Discussion Paper on Robson Rotation in Tasmania, (Hobart: Tasmanian Electoral Commission, April 2008) available online at: https://bit.ly/2spGeEB [accessed 10 June 2009].

Seats held by the Australian Labor Party: David Crean was elected to the seat of Buckingham as a candidate affiliated with the Australian Labor Party at this election. He joined Charles Batt who had been returned to the seat of Derwent as a Labor candidate in 1991. See the Glossary of this website for the definition of seats held by party.

By-election contested by previous member: The by-election for the electoral district of Hobart at this election was prompted by the resignation of the sitting member, Hank Petrusma, in January 1992 to contest a seat at the general election for the House of Assembly in February 1992. On failing to gain election, Petrusma recontested his former Legislative Council seat of Hobart at the by-election held in April, but was not elected. Even though he had resigned his seat, Petrusma is shown as the sitting member for the seat of Hobart in the table for the district of Hobart, below.

One of the candidates at this by-election died the day after polling day and, to remove any doubt about the validity of the poll, the Legislative Council (Division of Hobart) By-election Validation Act was passed in April 1992.

Tasmanian Greens: This was the first Legislative Council election contested by the Tasmanian Greens (see the results for the by-election for the district of Hobart, below). The party was formed in 1992 and continued a tradition of environmental politics in Tasmania that had begun with the United Tasmania Group in the 1970s; see Christine Milne, 'Green Politics', in Alison Alexander (editor), The Companion to Tasmanian History, p. 167 (Hobart: Centre for Tasmanian Historical Studies, University of Tasmania, 2005, ISBN 186295223X), online at: https://bit.ly/2JzXBXu

References: The Australian Journal of Politics and History has provided brief surveys of Tasmanian politics since 1956 in the 'Political Chronicle' section of the journal in issues of each annual volume. This publication can be viewed online through Wiley-Blackwell Journals at subscribing libraries; for notes on members of the Legislative Council, see the 'Parliament of Tasmania from 1856' page on the Parliament of Tasmania website at: https://bit.ly/2spMiws

Sources

Voting figures and election results are calculated from information provided by the Tasmanian Parliamentary Library on its website at: https://bit.ly/2sqeCyS [accessed 22 April 2009]. The party affiliation of candidates is derived from research by the Parliamentary Research Service, Parliament of Tasmania, unless otherwise indicated in the 'Notes', above.

Note also, Report on Parliamentary Elections 1990-1994, (Hobart: Government Printer, 1995), online at: https://bit.ly/2Lu7J64 [accessed 11 June 2009]


Tasmania, Legislative Council votes and seats won by electoral district

Election for the district of Buckingham

Date of election
23 May 1992
Type of election
Periodic election
Date of previous election
24 May 1986
Enrolment
17,821
Ballots cast
15,984
Turnout (rate of voting)
89.69%
Total valid votes
15,361
Rate of informal (invalid) voting
3.90%
Informal (invalid) ballots in multiple voting system

Candidate
David Mackenzie Crean
Party affiliation
Australian Labor Party
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
3,161
First preference vote share %
20.58
Elected
Yes
Candidate
Gerrad Strickland
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
2,453
First preference vote share %
15.97
Elected
Candidate
Joy Cairns
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
2,199
First preference vote share %
14.32
Elected
Candidate
Celia Taylor
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
2,130
First preference vote share %
13.87
Elected
Candidate
John Jury
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
1,960
First preference vote share %
12.76
Elected
Candidate
Stuart Slade
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
1,901
First preference vote share %
12.38
Elected
Candidate
Ian Donohue
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
1,183
First preference vote share %
7.70
Elected
Candidate
Tony Hale
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
374
First preference vote share %
2.43
Elected

Election for the district of Hobart

Date of election
11 April 1992
Type of election
By-election (resignation of member; see note)
Date of previous election
28 May 1988
Enrolment
16,640
Ballots cast
11,509
Turnout (rate of voting)
69.16%
Total valid votes
11,132
Rate of informal (invalid) voting
3.28%
Informal (invalid) ballots in multiple voting system

Candidate
Jean Mary Moore
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
2,488
First preference vote share %
22.35
Elected
Yes
Candidate
Hendrick (Hank) Petrusma
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Yes
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
2,157
First preference vote share %
19.38
Elected
Candidate
Peter Brain
Party affiliation
Tasmanian Greens
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
1,765
First preference vote share %
15.86
Elected
Candidate
Picton Hay
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
1,036
First preference vote share %
9.31
Elected
Candidate
Noel Bowman
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
944
First preference vote share %
8.48
Elected
Candidate
Dee Alty
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
940
First preference vote share %
8.44
Elected
Candidate
Darlene Haigh
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
649
First preference vote share %
5.83
Elected
Candidate
Jeffrey Briscoe
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
401
First preference vote share %
3.60
Elected
Candidate
Edyth Langham
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
302
First preference vote share %
2.71
Elected
Candidate
Muriel Heron
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
290
First preference vote share %
2.61
Elected
Candidate
Ken Harvey
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
160
First preference vote share %
1.44
Elected

Notes

By-election contested by previous member: The by-election for the electoral district of Hobart at this election was prompted by the resignation of the sitting member, Hank Petrusma, in January 1992 to contest a seat at the general election for the House of Assembly in February 1992. On failing to gain election, Petrusma recontested his former Legislative Council seat of Hobart at the by-election held in April, but was not elected. Even though he had resigned his seat, Petrusma is shown as the sitting member for the seat of Hobart in the table above.

One of the candidates at this by-election died the day after polling day and, to remove any doubt about the validity of the poll, the Legislative Council (Division of Hobart) By-election Validation Act was passed in April 1992.

Election for the district of Macquarie

Date of election
23 May 1992
Type of election
Periodic election
Date of previous election
24 May 1986
Enrolment
13,003
Ballots cast
Uncontested
Turnout (rate of voting)
Not applicable
Total valid votes
Not applicable
Rate of informal (invalid) voting
Informal (invalid) ballots in multiple voting system

Candidate
George Arthur Shaw
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Yes
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
Uncontested
First preference vote share %
Uncontested
Elected
Yes

Election for the district of South Esk

Date of election
23 May 1992
Type of election
Periodic election
Date of previous election
24 May 1986
Enrolment
15,682
Ballots cast
13,266
Turnout (rate of voting)
84.59%
Total valid votes
12,916
Rate of informal (invalid) voting
2.64%
Informal (invalid) ballots in multiple voting system

Candidate
Colin Lewis Rattray
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
4,488
First preference vote share %
34.75
Elected
Yes
Candidate
Len Fulton
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
3,120
First preference vote share %
24.16
Elected
Candidate
Jim Cox
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
2,805
First preference vote share %
21.72
Elected
Candidate
Sheila Ryan
Party affiliation
Independents
Sitting member
Sitting member from by-election
First Preference vote n
2,503
First preference vote share %
19.38
Elected



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