Elections held in 27 March 1999
Criteria for the inclusion of parties in this table are set out in the Glossary under 'listed party'
|Party Name||Candidates n||First preference vote n||First preference vote share %||Change from previous election %||Seats won by party n||Seats won by party %||Seats held by party n||Seats held by party %|
|Australian Labor Party||15||1,325,819||37.27||+2.02||8||38.10||16||38.10|
|Liberal Party - National Party (joint ticket)||15||974,352||27.39||-11.11||6||28.57|
|NSW Leg. Council 1999 'micro-parties' (see notes)||171||408,427||11.48||*||0|
|Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party||5||225,668||6.34||*||1||4.76||1||2.38|
|Christian Democratic Party||5||112,669||3.17||*||1||4.76||2||4.76|
|Progressive Labor Party||2||56,037||1.58||*||0|
|Reform the Legal System||2||35,712||1.00||*||1||4.76||1||2.38|
|A Better Future For Our Children||2||15,800||0.44||-0.84||0||1||2.38|
|Australians Against Further Immigration||2||10,881||0.31||-1.35||0|
|Outdoor Recreation Party||3||7,264||0.20||*||1||4.76||1||2.38|
* Party did not contest previous election or did not meet criteria for listing, or contested previous election under a different party name.
History of the Legislative Council: For information and references on the evolution of the Legislative Council, see the note for the 1978 Legislative Council election.
Electoral system: The members of the Legislative Council were elected for two Legislative Assembly terms (8 years), half the membership (21 members) retiring every Legislative Council election which was held at the same time as general elections for the Assembly. The state was one electoral district (see at large election) and members were elected using proportional representation by the single transferable vote method (STV) with optional preferences above a minimum of 15 ranked candidates, and above the line voting; see Clune and Griffith, pp. 503-515, and Twomey, pp. 346-350, (see 'References', below), and the two publications by Green (in 'Sources', below).
Minor parties and other groupings: This election became notorious for the very large number of party groups on the ballot, creating a table cloth sized ballot paper. The ease with which party groups could register a party name and the requirement that only two candidates were needed to be listed as a group on the ballot paper encouraged a large number of groups with a wide variety of political interests to contest this Legislative Council election. For a discussion of the effect of the electoral system on the representation of these so-called micro-parties in the New South Wales Legislative Council (see below), and the measures taken to prevent the proliferation of party groups at subsequent elections, see Smith, Against the Machines, particularly pp. 134-137, (see 'References', below).
'Micro-parties': Of the large number of small parties on the ballot at this election, the only ones shown by name in the table above are those which elected a member, gained more than 1 percent of the first preference vote, held a seat from a previous election or were to contest a subsequent election for the New South Wales Legislative Council under the same party name. The votes for the remaining 66 party groupings are summed and presented as a single 'micro-parties' aggregate result. For full details of the names and vote shares of these groups, see Green, New South Wales Elections 1999, pp. 47-56 (see 'Sources, below).
Liberal and National parties: As with Senate contests in New South Wales, the Liberal Party and the National Party ran a joint ticket for the Legislative Council election, combining candidates from both parties; see seats won by ticket, seats won by party, and seats held by party.
Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party: This rural based populist party contested the 1999 New South Wales election after winning more than 20 percent of the vote in the June 1998 Queensland Assembly election, and 8 percent of the vote in the October 1998 House of Representatives elections; see Smith, Against the Machines, particularly pp. 98-100, (see 'References', below).
Christian Democratic Party: This party was the successor to the Call to Australia party; see Smith, 1999, p. 396, (see 'References', below).
Reform the Legal System: This party was led by Peter Breen who '... had begun his party as the Bill of Rights Party in 1997 but changed its name in 1999 ....' Smith, Against the Machines, particularly pp. 103-104, (see 'References', below).
Unity Party: The formation of this party was prompted by the anti-immigrant policies of Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party, and supported multiculturalism and the rights of ethnic communities; see Smith, Against the Machines, p. 100, (see 'References', below).
Outdoor Recreation Party: This party '... represented four wheel drive enthusiasts, horse riders, campers and other who wanted greater access to national parks and other areas', Smith, Against the Machines, p. 103, (see 'References', below).
Independents: Two Independent members are shown as holding seats at the time of the 1999 Legislative Council election. One Richard Stanley Leigh Jones who was elected to the Legislative Council in 1988 as a member of the Australian Democrats but resigned from the party in 1996 and served out the remainder of his term as an Independent until 2003. The other was Helen Wai-Har Sham-Ho who was elected to the Legislative Council in 1988 as a member of the Liberal Party but resigned from the party in 1998 and served the remainder of her term as an Independent until 2003.
The vote shown for Independents in the table above is restricted to the votes gained by the 6 candidates who ran as candidates without party or group affiliation in the ungrouped category on the ballot paper. Several of the 66 'micro-party' groups (see above) had 'Independent' in their group label, but the difficulty of distinguishing these groups from other party groupings has restricted the definition of Independents to ungrouped candidates for this election.
References: A comprehensive study of the Legislative Council's history and operation can be found in David Clune and Gareth Griffith, Decision and Deliberation: The Parliament of New South Wales 1856-2003, (Sydney: Federation Press, 2006, ISBN 186287591X), and Anne Twomey, The Constitution of New South Wales, (Sydney: Federation Press, 2004, ISBN 1862875162).
For a survey of this election and the preceding period, see Smith, '1999', in Michael Hogan and David Clune (editors), The People's Choice: Electoral Politics in 20th Century New South Wales, vol. 3 (1968-1999), pp. 369-413, (Sydney: Parliament of New South Wales and University of Sydney, 2001, ISBN 0909907412); pp. 374-376, 396-396, 408-409, and 411 deal with issues directly relating to the Legislative Council election. For a study of minor parties and groups contesting New South Wales elections, see Smith, Against the Machines: Minor Parties and Independents in New South Wales 1910-2006, (Sydney: Federation Press, 2006, ISBN 9781862876231).
Antony Green, New South Wales Legislative Council Elections 1999, (Sydney: New South Wales Parliamentary Library Research Service, Background Paper No. 2/200, ISSN 1325-5142 ISBN 0731316762),online here [accessed 13 August 2015]; Antony Green, New South Wales Elections 1999, (Sydney: New South Wales Parliamentary Library Research Service, Background Paper No. 4/99, 1999, ISSN 1325-5142, ISBN 073131655X), online here [accessed 13 August 2015]; Colin A Hughes, A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics 1985-1999, pp. 309-311, (Sydney: Federation Press, 2002, ISBN 1862874344); New South Wales Parliament, Legislative Council, Annual Report 2000, pp. 67-68, (Sydney: Government Printer, 2000, ISSN 1324-1974).